Submitted to Stanley Foundation for "Clinical Trials" Session, 2001 Stanley Symposium, Nov. 16, 2001
Accepted for “Poster Session” Nov. 15
Abstract only, without references, published in Stanley Symposium program book (as shown below).



S. H. Shakman
Institute Of Science

Two independent lines of inquiry receiving particular attention during the early half of the Twentieth Century lend support to the concept that schizophrenia and other mental illnesses may be caused by infection.

(a) Indirect: A substantial body of literature (about a thousand articles in the INDEX MEDICUS) has documented the use of autohemotherapy (primarily extra-vascular, i.e., intra-muscular or subcutaneous, immediate re-injection of untreated auto-blood) in a range of conditions, including mental illnesses and other nervous system disorders. This may be viewed as implicating the presence of blood-borne infection relating to such disorders, which thus may have enabled the re-injected auto-blood to act at least in part in the manner of a therapeutic “vaccine”; and
(b) Direct: The monumental works (more than 300 published articles) of E.C. Rosenow, M.D., head of experimental bacteriology at the Mayo Foundation for nearly three decades, 1915-1944, and numerous others using his painstakingly-developed and consistent methodology, directly implicated infection in a range of systemic diseases, including schizophrenia, epilepsy and other nervous system disorders. Beyond enabling consequently-indicated therapeutic measures, Rosenow’s methods provided means of assessing associated microbial effects of the likes of: shock treatment in schizophrenia and spontaneous convulsion in epilepsy; use of chlorpromazine in schizophrenia and of other substances such as histamine in other conditions; and active stages of disease in terms of presence of specific antigen in the bloodstream. (Thus while Rosenow did not use or refer to autohemotherapy in any way, his work nonetheless provides a possible explanation of its reported effectiveness.)

From a hypothetical perspective, independent of the above two lines of inquiry, the very idea of involvement of an infectious agent in mental illness simultaneously suggests that such infectious agent (once identified) might somehow be commandeered into therapeutic service, e.g., in the form of a therapeutic “vaccine”. Accordingly it is suggested that consideration be given to the integration of trials of (a) extra-vascular autohemotherapy and/or (b) therapeutic antigen, antibody and other methods described by Rosenow into existing or planned clinical trials as feasible; and/or that able and interested entities consider establishing dedicated clinical trials to explore these historically-tested and well-documented methods.

[Note to Abstract Editor: Citations of related articles in the above two categories have been provided for convenient reference; please edit or omit as desired or required due to space limits.]

Citations of Related Articles:
(a) Autohemotherapy:
---in chronic forms of mental diseases, [S. di Mauro] Cervello 12: 263-266, July15, '33
---injections of patient's own blood, sodium nucleinate and malaria therapy in dementia praecox, [L. Grimaldi] Manicomio 43: 113-138, May-Dec. '29
---of depression, [G. Giehm] Med.Klin. 30: 803-804, June 15, '34
---in depression and melancholia, [T. Lehoczky] Gyógyásezat 77: 344-7, May 30-June 6' , 37
---in epileptics & insane, [M. Mitlin & E. Posdniakov] Vrach.dielo 10: 502-504, Apr 15, 27
---of depression and melancholia, [T. von Lehoczky] Psychiat.-neurol.Wchnschr. 39: 180-3, Ap 24, '37
---favorable results in mental diseases, [A. Hauptmann] Med.Welt 4: 1031-3, July 19, '30
---in mental diseases, [E. Zara] Riforma med. 47: 330-5, '31
---value in mental diseases, [G. Colucci] Morgagni 73: 1273-1282, July 5, '31
---in mental diseases, [C. Poli] Riv.sper.di freniat. 56: 664-679, Sept. 30, '32
---in mental diseases, [P. Durando] Osp.maggiore 21: 209-213, April '33
---autogenous, autohemotherapy in psychiatry, [Beelitz Med.Welt 7:1330, Sept.16, '33
---Reddick, R. H., "Autohemotherapy in chronic mental disorders; a preliminary report.", JOURNAL OF AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF HOMEOPATHY 43:10 (Dec. 1950), p. 263-9.
---Reddick, R.H., Autohemotherapy in psychiatry, Maryland M. J. 4:22-31, Jan. 1955
---in schizophrenia, [O. Freytag] Psychiat.-neurol.Wchnschr. 35: 322, July1, '33; comment by Magenau 35: 468, Sept.23, '33
---in schizophrenia. [P. G. Quirós] neurobiol. 313: 931?936, July-Dec. '33
---in schizophrenia [S. Cagilero] Studium 26: 73-76 April 1, '36

(b) E.C. Rosenow:
---Bacteriologic, etiologic, and serologic studies in epilepsy and schizophrenia, I. Postgrad. Med. 2: 346?357, Nov. 1947
---Bacteriologic, etiologic, and serologic studies in epilepsy and schizophrenia, II; effects in animals following inoculation of alpha streptococci, Postgrad. Med. 124-136, Feb. 1948
---Bacteriologic, etiologic, and serologic studies in epilepsy and schizophrenia, III; cutaneous reactions to intradermal injection of streptococcal antibody and antigen, Postgrad. Med. 3: 367-376, May 1948.
---Bacteriological studies in idiopathic epilepsy and schizophrenia, South Dakota J. Med. and Pharm. 5: 243-248; 262; 272, Sept. 1952.
---Streptococci in etiology of diverse diseases, including diseases of nervous system, J. Nerv. and Ment. Dis. 117: 415-428, May 1953.
---Specific types of alpha streptococci in etiology and streptococcal thermal antibody in diagnosis and treatment of diverse diseases, J. Nerv. and Ment. Dis. 122: 238-247, Sept. 1955.
---Bacteriological studies on etiology and chlorpromazine treatment of schizophrenia and related mental disorders, J. Nerv. and Ment. Dis. 122: 321?331, Oct. 1955.

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